Base oil is found in all lubricants. Lubricants are typically composed of 90% basic oil and 10% additives. The American Petroleum Institute (API) divides base oils into five categories based on saturate content, sulphur content, and viscosity index.


  • Saturation Level

Saturates are a kind of chemical found in a lot of basic oils. Saturates are naturally present in base oil, although they are produced in greater quantities during the refining process. As the degree of saturates increases, the oil’s molecular bond grows stronger. As a result, the resistance to breakdown, oxidation, and viscosity loss will be enhanced.

  • Sulphur Concentration

Sulphur is an inorganic element found naturally in crude oil. It can be damaging to the oil’s performance since it interacts with oxygen. Exhaust after-treatment equipment may potentially be harmed. Aside from the negative features of sulphur, there are some advantages. Sulphur is a potent antioxidant that helps to maintain oxidative stability. When the sulphur concentration is reduced, the purity is higher, which reduces the risk of corrosion and oxidation.

  • Viscosity Index

The Viscosity Index measures variations in viscosity as a function of oil temperature. At 40°C and 100°C, the viscosity is measured. When the viscosity index is high, temperature fluctuations have a lower effect. When the temperature drops, the viscosity of all oils increases, and when the temperature rises, the viscosity reduces.


Groups I, II, and III are obtained from crude oil (mineral oil), Group IV is totally synthetic oil, and Group V is for all other base oils.

Group I

Group I oils are solvent-refined, which is a less complex refining procedure. As a result, they are the least refined and hence the most affordable base oils. Solvent-refined oils often include a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds that cannot be separated throughout the refining process. As a result, the oil has uneven molecules, which causes higher friction. As a result, Group I oils are most commonly employed in less demanding applications.

Group II

Hydrocracking is a more difficult procedure for Group II base oils than it is for Group I base oils. The process of hydrocracking involves breaking down big hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones. Because these oils’ hydrocarbon molecules are saturated, they have greater antioxidation capabilities. Oils in Group II are priced similarly to those in Group I.

Group III

Group III oils go through a more extensive procedure than Group II oils. Severe hydrocracking is a more extreme form of the process. During the refinery process, more pressure and heat is applied. As a result, the basic oil becomes purer and of better quality. Despite the fact that Group III oils are made from crude oil, they are frequently referred to as synthetic hydrocarbons.

Group IV

Polyalphaolefins are polyalphaolefins, which make up Group IV basic oils. These aren’t removed; instead, they’re formed up of little, homogeneous molecules. This is also PAOs’ most significant benefit: they may be totally customised to have a structure with predictable qualities. They’re ideal for usage in bitterly cold or scorching heat.

Group V

In Group V, any form of base oil that isn’t included in the other groups can be utilised. It’s a Group V base oil if it’s synthetic and not PAO. Naphthenic oils and esters, for example, are among them. Group V oils are usually used as an addition to other base oils rather than as a base oil.


DANA Lubricants Factory LLC (DANA LUBES)  is an ISO 9001: 2015 Certified, API Approved UAE  BASED Lubricant Oil Manufacturer in Dubai , OILS & GREASE is Quality Manufacturer & Supplier of Automotive, Industrial & Marine Lubricant Oils. Established in 2002, we are part of well known Industrial Conglomerate DANA GROUP based in Dubai UAE ( We are exporting to more than 70 countries worldwide including Europe, Asia, Africa, South & Central America, Australia and GCC(Arab Countries).


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